CircuitPython

Source code browser

# Adafruit CircuitPython

[![Build Status](https://travis-ci.org/adafruit/circuitpython.svg?branch=master)](https://travis-ci.org/adafruit/circuitpython) [![Doc Status](https://readthedocs.org/projects/circuitpython/badge/?version=latest)](http://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/) [![Gitter](https://badges.gitter.im/adafruit/circuitpython.svg)](https://gitter.im/adafruit/circuitpython?utm_source=badge&utm_medium=badge&utm_campaign=pr-badge)

This is an open source derivative of [MicroPython](http://www.micropython.org)
for use on educational development boards designed and sold by [Adafruit](https://www.adafruit.com).

As a MicroPython derivative, this implements Python 3.x on microcontrollers such
as the SAMD21 and ESP8266.

## Project Status
This project is in beta. Most APIs should be stable going forward.

### Supported boards

#### Designed for CircuitPython
* [Adafruit CircuitPlayground Express](https://www.adafruit.com/product/3333)
* [Adafruit Feather M0 Express](https://www.adafruit.com/product/3403)
* [Adafruit Metro M0 Express](https://www.adafruit.com/product/3505)

#### Other
* [Adafruit Feather HUZZAH](https://www.adafruit.com/products/2821)
* [Adafruit Feather M0 Basic](https://www.adafruit.com/products/2772)
* [Adafruit Feather M0 Bluefruit LE](https://www.adafruit.com/products/2995) (uses M0 Basic binaries)
* [Adafruit Feather M0 Adalogger](https://www.adafruit.com/product/2796) (MicroSD card not supported yet.)
* [Arduino Zero](https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardZero)

## Download

Official binaries are available through the [latest GitHub releases](https://github.com/adafruit/circuitpython/releases).
Continuous (one per commit) builds are available [here](https://adafruit-circuit-python.s3.amazonaws.com/index.html?prefix=bin)
which includes experimental hardware support.

## Documentation

Guides and videos are available through the [Adafruit Learning System](https://learn.adafruit.com/) under the [CircuitPython category](https://learn.adafruit.com/category/circuitpython) and [MicroPython category](https://learn.adafruit.com/category/micropython). An API reference is also available on [Read the Docs](http://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/?).

## Contributing
See [CONTRIBUTING.md](https://github.com/adafruit/circuitpython/blob/master/CONTRIBUTING.md)
for full guidelines but please be aware that by contributing to this project you
are agreeing to the
[Code of Conduct](https://github.com/adafruit/circuitpython/blob/master/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md).
Contributors who follow the
[Code of Conduct](https://github.com/adafruit/circuitpython/blob/master/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md)
are welcome to submit pull requests and they will be promptly reviewed by
project admins. Please join the [Gitter chat](https://gitter.im/adafruit/circuitpython) too.

## Differences from [MicroPython](https://github.com/micropython/micropython)

* Port for Atmel SAMD21 (Commonly known as M0 in product names.)
* No `machine` API on Atmel SAMD21 port.
* Only supports Atmel SAMD21 and ESP8266 ports.
* The order that files are run and the state thats shared between them. The goal is to clarify the role of each file and make them independent from each other.
    * `boot.py` (or `settings.py`) runs only once on start up before USB is initialized. This lays the ground work for configuring USB at startup rather than it being fixed. Since serial is not available, output is written to boot_out.txt.
    * `code.py` (or `main.py`) is run after every reload until it finishes or is interrupted. After its done the vm and hardware is reinitialized. **This means you cannot read state from code.py in the REPL anymore.** This was changed to reduce confusion about pins and memory being in use.
    * After code.py the REPL can be entered by pressing any key. It no longer shares state with code.py so its a fresh vm.
    * Autoreload state will be maintained across reload.
* Adds a safe mode that does not run user code after a hard crash or brown out. The hope is that this will make it easier to fix code that causes nasty crashes by making it available through mass storage after the crash. A reset (the button) is needed after its fixed to get back into normal mode.
* Unified hardware APIs:
[`audioio`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/audioio/__init__.html), [`analogio`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/analogio/__init__.html), [`busio`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/busio/__init__.html), [`digitalio`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/digitalio/__init__.html), [`pulseio`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/pulseio/__init__.html), [`touchio`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/touchio/__init__.html), [`microcontroller`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/microcontroller/__init__.html), [`board`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/board/__init__.html), [`bitbangio`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/bitbangio/__init__.html) (Only available on atmel-samd21 and ESP8266 currently.)
* Tracks MicroPython's releases (not master).
* No module aliasing. (`uos` and `utime` are not available as `os` and `time` respectively.)
* Modules with a CPython counterpart, such as `time`, are strict [subsets](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/time/__init__.html) of their [CPython version](https://docs.python.org/3.4/library/time.html?highlight=time#module-time). Therefore, code from CircuitPython is runnable on CPython but not necessarily the reverse.
* tick count is available as [`time.monotonic()`](https://circuitpython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/shared-bindings/time/__init__.html#time.monotonic)
* `os` only available as `uos`
* atmel-samd21 features
    * RGB status LED
    * Auto-reload after file write over mass storage. (Disable with `samd.disable_autoreload()`)
    * Wait state after boot and main run, before REPL.
    * Main is one of these: `code.txt`, `code.py`, `main.py`, `main.txt`
    * Boot is one of these: `settings.txt`, `settings.py`, `boot.py`, `boot.txt`

## Project Structure
Here is an overview of the top-level directories.

### Core
The core code of MicroPython is shared amongst ports including CircuitPython:
- `docs` High level user documentation in Sphinx reStructuredText format.
- `drivers` External device drivers written in Python.
- `examples` A few example Python scripts.
- `extmod` Shared C code used in multiple ports' modules.
- `lib` Shared core C code including externally developed libraries such as FATFS.
- `logo` The MicroPython logo.
- `mpy-cross` A cross compiler that converts Python files to byte code prior to being run in MicroPython. Useful for reducing library size.
- `py` Core Python implementation, including compiler, runtime, and
  core library.
- `shared-bindings` Shared definition of Python modules, their docs and backing C APIs. Ports must implement the C API to support the corresponding module.
- `shared-module` Shared implementation of Python modules that may be based on `common-hal`.
- `tests` Test framework and test scripts.
- `tools` Various tools, including the pyboard.py module.

### Ports
Ports include the code unique to a microcontroller line and also variations
based on the board.
- `atmel-samd` Support for SAMD21 based boards such as [Arduino Zero](https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardZero), [Adafruit Feather M0 Basic](https://www.adafruit.com/products/2772),  and
[Adafruit Feather M0 Bluefruit LE](https://www.adafruit.com/products/2995).
- `bare-arm` A bare minimum version of MicroPython for ARM MCUs.
- `cc3200` Support for boards based [CC3200](http://www.ti.com/product/CC3200) from TI such as the [WiPy 1.0](https://www.pycom.io/solutions/py-boards/wipy1/).
- `esp8266` Support for boards based on ESP8266 WiFi modules such as the [Adafruit Feather HUZZAH](https://www.adafruit.com/products/2821).
- `minimal` A minimal MicroPython port. Start with this if you want
  to port MicroPython to another microcontroller.
- `pic16bit` Support for 16-bit PIC microcontrollers.
- `qemu-arm` Support for ARM emulation through [QEMU](https://qemu.org).
- `stmhal` Support for boards based on STM32 microcontrollers including the MicroPython flagship [PyBoard](https://store.micropython.org/store/#/products/PYBv1_1).
- `teensy` Support for the Teensy line of boards such as the [Teensy 3.1](https://www.pjrc.com/teensy/teensy31.html).
- `unix` Support for UNIX.
- `windows` Support for [Windows](https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/).
- `zephyr` Support for [Zephyr](https://www.zephyrproject.org/), a real-time operating system by the Linux Foundation.

CircuitPython only maintains the `atmel-samd` and `esp8266` ports. The rest are here to maintain compatibility with the [MicroPython](https://github.com/micropython/micropython) parent project.